Eyes Wide Shut !NEW!
Background: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been the 'gold standard' pharmacotherapy treatment for illicit opioid dependence for over 30 years. It has been widely evaluated, and is generally claimed to be 'effective'.
Eyes Wide Shut
Writing in the July 23 issue of Science, a team led by Michael Crair, the William Ziegler III Professor of Neuroscience and professor of ophthalmology and visual science, describes waves of activity that emanate from the neonatal retina in mice before their eyes ever open.
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is used to modulate brain oscillations to measure changes in cognitive function. It is only since recently that brain activity in human subjects during tACS can be investigated. The present study aims to investigate the phase relationship between the external tACS signal and concurrent brain activity. Subjects were stimulated with tACS at individual alpha frequency during eyes open and eyes closed resting states. Electrodes were placed at Cz and Oz, which should affect parieto-occipital areas most strongly. Source space magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were used to estimate phase coherence between tACS and brain activity. Phase coherence was significantly increased in areas in the occipital pole in eyes open resting state only. The lag between tACS and brain responses showed considerable inter-individual variability. In conclusion, tACS at individual alpha frequency entrains brain activity in visual cortices. Interestingly, this effect is state dependent and is clearly observed with eyes open but only to a lesser extent with eyes closed.
Subjects sat in a comfortable chair in a dimly lit booth (AK3b, Vacuumschmelze, Germany) and were asked to fixate on a centrally presented cross without any further task (i.e. resting state) for two minutes with their eyes open and two minutes with their eyes closed. Resting state data were acquired in a sham condition and two individual alpha frequency (IAF) tACS blocks at different intensities (see below). The IAF was estimated from an eyes open resting state block, recorded before the start of the actual experiment, by identifying the peak frequency in the alpha range over occipital sensors (see Table S1 for details). The strong tACS condition was always after the sham and weak tACS blocks (counterbalanced) to avoid aftereffects.
To compare PC across all conditions in the visual cortex (mean over voxels along the Calcarine sulcus as selected using the Automated Anatomical Labeling [AAL] atlas) we computed a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) comprised of the factors resting state (eyes open; eyes closed) and tACS condition (sham, weak, strong). The Greenhouse-Geisser correction was applied to account for sphericity violations27. We report the corrected p-values and epsilon coefficient where appropriate. Post-hoc test were corrected using the false-discovery-rate (FDR) procedure28.
(A,B) show PC during strong tACS, (C,D) show PC during weak tACS. (A,C) show the eyes open state and (B,D) the eyes closed state. Brain activity shows increased PC in visual cortex areas with eyes open but not with eyes closed. All cortex maps are thresholded for significant differences (cluster corrected) in PC between tACS conditions and sham. An MNI template brain was used for visualization purposes.
In conclusion, our results provide evidence for topographically specific entrainment of brain activity to alpha frequency tACS. In particular, entrainment was observed in a state dependent manner, mainly during eyes open resting state. Interestingly, entrainment occurs with subject specific phase lags between tACS and brain activity and also different lags within the visual system. Finally, our results challenge existing ideas that low intensity tACS will not affect neural activity.
How to cite this article: Ruhnau, P. et al. Eyes wide shut: Transcranial alternating current stimulation drives alpha rhythm in a state dependent manner. Sci. Rep. 6, 27138; doi: 10.1038/srep27138 (2016).
Although it is commendable that a few university systems are taking steps to better screen candidates, the pass-the-harasser problem is national in scope, and, thus, a solution requires collective action by institutions across the country. Rather than keeping their eyes wide shut and ignoring a problem in plain view, other institutions should follow the lead of UC Davis and the University of Wisconsin system. To promote such action, we propose a comprehensive strategy tied to something all institutions need: accreditation by an agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Education.
Persons who object to more hiring inquiries may maintain that requiring disclosure of past misconduct will impact the ability to recruit top talent. It is true that superstars may not apply for a position at a school that seeks information related to past misconduct. Proponents of more screening may respond to this position by noting that it is not a loss if candidates pursue employment elsewhere if the candidates do not want to respond to concerns related to past misconduct. Also, a school should not be at a competitive disadvantage for making inquiries related to past misconduct if institutions nationwide adopt hiring guidelines pursuant to the regulatory regime proposed below.
The policies and related procedures also require that the final candidate be asked the same questions. This move provides another avenue for obtaining information on past misconduct and pending investigations in the event that another employer fails to respond to the specific reference check questions. By requiring that these questions be posed, UW broke ground in becoming the first university system to adopt system-wide policies requiring that all reference checks affirmatively cover concerns related to sexual misconduct.
Unlike the individual policies adopted by individual universities, the Washington statute provides that postsecondary schools take measures to address issues related to employee screening and disclosure of information. The statutory provisions also communicate to postsecondary employers statewide that they should not use nondisclosure agreements in the circumstances described in the statute. Although the reach and scope of the Washington statute encompasses more than the UC Davis and UW system policies and procedures, the statute is limited to postsecondary institutions in Washington.
These reciprocal roles and responsibilities of employers and hiring institutions point to the fact that effective change requires that all institutions take steps to address the problem. Unless schools nationwide take action to deal with hiring inquiries and reports, employees can avoid having to address questions about their past misconduct by seeking employment at schools that do not require reference checks covering misconduct findings. As reported by representatives of UC Davis, candidates may be self-selecting out of searches when institutions require that past misconduct be addressed. This suggests that perpetrators will seek employment with employers that conduct no or minimal gatekeeping. Failure to exercise diligence in hiring inquiries in turn contributes to the increased risk of sexual harassment for students and employees at those institutions. Therefore, the problem requires that all schools change their policies and practices, both as employers and as hiring institutions.
Although a few schools and one state have taken steps to require inquiries related to misconduct findings, the pass-the-harasser phenomenon is a shared concern involving institutions nationwide. Most fundamentally, the problem comes down to hiring schools failing to inquire and other employer schools failing to disclose information related to prior misconduct.
. See Hartocollis, supra note 5 (describing how colleges nationwide are spending millions to hire lawyers and a wide array of officials necessary to deal with the increasing number of sexual misconduct complaints).
Actually, one of the things that made Eyes wide shut so unforgettable was the use of so many beautiful Venetian masks. They add to the atmosphere and characters that touch of mystery and elegance that made the movie so intriguing!
Well, the meaning of this phrase is of someone who refuses to see something even if it stands before their very eyes. This is because of their prejudice about how things should be. For instance, in the movie, Bill refuses to see that his wife can have licentious thoughts for other men. That is therefore the meaning behind the Eyes wide shut movie.
Kubrick framed Eyes Wide Shut in the standard 1.85:1 format, primarily using a set of Zeiss Super Speed Tl.3 spherical prime lenses, but occasionally opting to employ Arri's T2.1 variable prime lenses or a zoom. Smith notes that the auteur favored wider lenses to show off the production values in his sets; most of Eyes was shot with the Zeiss 18mm lens, and the filmmakers rarely went longer than 35mm. A longtime fan of Arriflex cameras, Kubrick deployed a pair of 535Bs, operated by Martin Hume, throughout the production. The filmmakers also made frequent use of a Steadicam rig equipped with a Moviecam SL, operated by either Elizabeth Ziegler or Peter Cavaciuti.
Be aware that the film has been poorly served by advance speculation (most of the widely reported plot titbits prove wrong) and the overexposure of the juicy Tom and Nicole snog clip, an outrageous bit of trailer foreplay unconsummated in the event and giving the entirely erroneous impression that this film is a non-stop bonkfest. Naturally audiences obligingly stampeded first showings in the USA. Just as naturally, the box office tailed off noticeably as soon as word got round that Cruise doesn't actually get his kit off (although Kidman does, often), in what is not so much an erotic drama as a psychological probing of marriage, desire, jealousy and sexual paranoia. Adapted from Arthur Schnitzler's heavy Dream Story, this is about the reality of sexual love versus its illusions. 041b061a72